Silver Linden. A Bee Killer?

Bees are often found dead or stunned underneath the silver linden.

One of the other unique lindens in the park is the Silver Linden (Tilia tomentosa.} This linden, or lime, is native to countries east of the Adriatic Sea, including Albania, Bulgaria,Croatia,Greece,Hungary, North Macedonia,Montenegro,Romania,Serbia, Slovenia,Turkey, and the Ukraine. The tree was introduced into Great Britain where it grows into north Scotland. This source  states the tree was used for lumber in Bulgaria and Romania. Another interesting use of the wood is in carvings found in Orthodox Greek temples.

paper on various species of linden in the Balkans mentions that Tilia tomentosa tends to reproduce via sprouts. This same paper recounts it is possible for some lime trees to live for a thousand years. It does not indicate which of the various species have reached this age, though. The University of Florida suggests propagation of this species is most often accomplished via cuttings as seed germination can take two years.

Oddly, the USDA calls T. tomentosa a native of Ontario. Most likely this is a mistake as most other sources list it as native to Asia and Western Europe exclusively. In North America this variety is hardy in zones 4-7 and was introduced in 1767.

Monumental Trees lists the tallest silver linden, a tree in Belgium, at 121 feet. The US list of Champion trees has no listing for Tilia tomentosa, although many sources, including Dirr and Warren’s The Tree Book:Superior Selections for Landscapes, Streetscapes, and Gardens, say it is an excellent street tree that is more resistant to aphids than other lindens, although other sources dispute this. This may also be true of Japanese beetles. It may be more drought and pollution resistant.This information seems to differ by the state which provides it and leads me to believe its properties vary with the environment it is in.

With the silvery underside to its leaves, many consider this a good shade tree with a shimmery effect in a breeze. Like most other lindens, bees are very attracted to its flowers from late June into July. Dirr and Warren, as well as others, report this might not be a good tree for bees as they are often found dead or stunned underneath them. Bumblebees are more prone to suffer than honey bees. Recently studies have been done to figure out if the problem lies with the biology of the bees or  has to do with the flower nectar. The conclusion reported in a Royal Society (2017) article is that further study is needed to determine the cause of death.

E17 Silver linden specimen Tilia tomentosa in City Park is a smaller tree located along the drive to the golf course parking lot. Part of the fire station can be seen in the background of this photo.

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Tilia tomentosa

 

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