Silver Linden. A Bee Killer?

Bees are often found dead or stunned underneath the silver linden.

One of the other unique lindens in the park is the Silver Linden (Tilia tomentosa.} This linden, or lime, is native to countries east of the Adriatic Sea, including Albania, Bulgaria,Croatia,Greece,Hungary, North Macedonia,Montenegro,Romania,Serbia, Slovenia,Turkey, and the Ukraine. The tree was introduced into Great Britain where it grows into north Scotland. This source  states the tree was used for lumber in Bulgaria and Romania. Another interesting use of the wood is in carvings found in Orthodox Greek temples.

paper on various species of linden in the Balkans mentions that Tilia tomentosa tends to reproduce via sprouts. This same paper recounts it is possible for some lime trees to live for a thousand years. It does not indicate which of the various species have reached this age, though. The University of Florida suggests propagation of this species is most often accomplished via cuttings as seed germination can take two years.

Oddly, the USDA calls T. tomentosa a native of Ontario. Most likely this is a mistake as most other sources list it as native to Asia and Western Europe exclusively. In North America this variety is hardy in zones 4-7 and was introduced in 1767.

Monumental Trees lists the tallest silver linden, a tree in Belgium, at 121 feet. The US list of Champion trees has no listing for Tilia tomentosa, although many sources, including Dirr and Warren’s The Tree Book:Superior Selections for Landscapes, Streetscapes, and Gardens, say it is an excellent street tree that is more resistant to aphids than other lindens, although other sources dispute this. This may also be true of Japanese beetles. It may be more drought and pollution resistant.This information seems to differ by the state which provides it and leads me to believe its properties vary with the environment it is in.

With the silvery underside to its leaves, many consider this a good shade tree with a shimmery effect in a breeze. Like most other lindens, bees are very attracted to its flowers from late June into July. Dirr and Warren, as well as others, report this might not be a good tree for bees as they are often found dead or stunned underneath them. Bumblebees are more prone to suffer than honey bees. Recently studies have been done to figure out if the problem lies with the biology of the bees or  has to do with the flower nectar. The conclusion reported in a Royal Society (2017) article is that further study is needed to determine the cause of death.

E17 Silver linden specimen Tilia tomentosa in City Park is a smaller tree located along the drive to the golf course parking lot. Part of the fire station can be seen in the background of this photo.

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Tilia tomentosa

 

Tea and Chocolate–Products of the Linden?

Honey from linden flowers is said to be some of the lightest and best available.

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Profusions of yellowish white linden flowers

By far the easiest way to find linden trees is during and immediately after they bloom as the clusters of flowers (cymes) give the whole tree a distinctive look, as if the undersides of the leaves have been painted a lighter color. The flowers also give off a fragrance that can be discerned from a distance. Most of the trees are quite tall and if they are tagged, it may be difficult to find the tag, but there is little mistaking a linden in bloom. Also helpful in identification when they aren’t blooming are the heart-shaped, but saw-tooth-edged leaves. The straight trunk and bark also help identify the genus.

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Grooved bark of the American linden
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Cymes of the linden with a single bract

Lindens bloom between May and July, although many sources mention June as the primary bloom time. The very fragrant blossoms come with a single bract and hang down like lacy umbrellas. Others have described them as “fireworks.”

In the US the American linden (Tilia americana) is also know as American basswood or just basswood. The range of this native tree in North America is the East and Midwest. In England, its European relative (Tilia cordata) is known as a Lime tree or little leaf linden.

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Tilia americana in bloom

Most sources state our native tree grows to a height of around 70′. The National Champion tree in a Kentucky cemetery, crowned in 2017, has a height of 102′. There is a tie for the largest American Linden in Colorado, with one tree in Fort Collins and the other in Denver. Both are listed at a height of 92′. Monumental Trees lists the tallest American Linden in Europe at 101 feet and the oldest specimen in the Netherlands as about 138 years old. Other sources have suggested the species can live for a thousand years!

Monumental Trees lists the tallest Tilia Cordata at 132.87 feet. This tree resides in the United Kingdom. One source states a tree in Britain is over 2000 years old, but Monumental Trees lists the oldest as a mere 820 years. In North America, the little leaf has been introduced in the most northeastern parts of the continent, where the normal height is said to be 50 to 60 feet. The US champion (height plus girth plus branch spread) is in the state of Maryland and only towers 83 feet. Colorado’s champion can be found in Denver at 89 feet, with the second place tree, 72′, found in Fort Collins.

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Tilia cordata

Native Americans made rope, netting, and baskets out of the inner bark, or bast, of the basswood tree. The wood is used for lightweight projects such as guitars and other instruments, carvings, yardsticks, and veneer. At one time basswood was the prime material for prosthetic limbs. The Iroquois carved the bark for ceremonial masks. The wood of the tree, being lightweight and fast-burning, may not be the best choice for heating.

According to the Kentucky Department of Horticulture, the American Linden was first cultivated in 1752. An oil derived from its seed pods was used as a replacement for olive oil, while the sap can be made into a drink or boiled into a syrup. Honey from linden flowers is said to be some of the lightest and best available. The preponderance of bees around the trees give rise to another of its nicknames, the bee tree, not to be confused with the Korean bee tree.

An usual product first made in the 19th century from the dried flowers and nutlets

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Nutlets on the little leaf linden

was a chocolate-like substance. Unfortunately this concoction did not keep well and production ceased. In a short article discussing this “chocolate” the author says it is still possible to make some for immediate consumption or to freeze and includes a recipe.

The flowers of the tree especially have many uses. In France the leaves were made into a tea (tilleul) and used as a mild sedative.

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Blooms on comes with a single bract
Cup of Linden tea
Cup of Linden tea. The tea bags are slimy but the taste is pleasant.

Since the middle ages, the tea has been used to cure headaches. Alternatively the flowers could be added to a hot bath to help insomnia. Even today the flowers may be used in the making of perfume, As an early variation of “forest bathing,” sitting under the trees was thought to be helpful to epileptics.

Usually made from the European species, Tilia Cordata, linden tea is a well known use of the trees’ flowers, leaves, and bark. Unlike many medicinal uses of plants, linden tea has had a number of scientific studies conducted and papers written. Many benefits, such as relieving hypertension, stomach issues, and pain, helping you sleep, and a reduction of inflammation are reported in alternative medicine articles. Along with benefits, most of these articles mention a few drawbacks, such as possible heart problems and drowsiness.

To find the trees in City Park, follow your nose! The American Linden (Tilia americanapictured in this blog is B98, which is across from the trolley station on S. Roosevelt Ave. There is another American Linden on the tree map at B101, which is located on north side of City Park Drive between fields 1 and 2. Tilia cordata, or the Little Leaf Linden (A 88), is also on the north side City Park Drive. It is the fourth stem in from the northwest corner of Roosevelt and City Park Drive, two down from the light post and near the little kids’ playground. These three trees almost form the points of an equilateral triangle.

Swedish Whitebeam-Don’t Let the Tag Fool You!

What do I know about the Swedish Whitebeam tree? It belongs to the genus Sorbus which is in the rose family. This large family of over 3000 species includes apples, cherries, plums, pears, and mountain ashes, as well as the flowers known as roses. Mountain ash trees are members of the same genus (Sorbus) as white beams and therein may lie some of my confusion in finding this speciman. I kept returning to the area on the tree map where this species was said to be located, but the unmarked trees in the area seemed to be true ashes and elms. The one unusual tree had leaves that were completely wrong. I thought I knew the smaller deciduous tree was an Oakleaf mountain ash as I’d read the tag the year before.

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The darker green Sorbus intermedia in forefront

As the name implies, the Swedish whitebeam is not native to North America. As it doesn’t appear on the USDA maps, it must not be considered significant in the United States, although Toronto mentions it on its parks pages. In Great Britain it is suggested as a street tree. One source suggests it can withstand harsh conditions, is hardy to zone 3, and grows on Shetland Island. It may also be a tree useful for birds and bees.

The wood of the whitebeam has been used for handles, wheels and cogs. According to a few sources, the berries have been used to make bread and jam or used similarly to raisins. They may also be distilled into spirits.

As mentioned above, some of the confusion in finding this tree may be related to some of its attributes. Whitebeam are related to mountain ash trees and rowans. Tree Names lists fifty species of whitebeam, but also mentions whitebeams and rowans naturally hybridize. Some authors hypothesize that Swedish whitebeam are a hybridization of mountain ash and two other species or are derived from the Finnish whitebeam. With all the mountain ash genes involved, it isn’t surprising the sign on the Swedish Whitebeam

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Swedish whitebeam with correct latin name on label.

displays Oakleaf Mountain Ash as a common name along with the latin name of Sorbus intermedia, or that of the Swedish Whitebeam. Seems like it just continues the confounding nature of the Sorbus genus!

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The leaves of the Swedish whitebeam looking very similar to that of the Oakleaf mountain ash.

And why the two trees are so easy to confuse:

 

The tree on the Fort Collins City Park Self-Guided Tree Tour was planted in 1994 with a 2″ diameter. Although they are supposed to have white flowers in Spring turning to red berries in fall, no berries were visible in late September. This tree may live to 134 years.

To locate tree D192 Swedish Whitebeam (Sorbus intermedia), go to the southwest corner of the intersection of Sheldon and City Park Drives. This section is lined on the north and east by elms and ash trees with conifers making up the other boundaries. In the center are two conifers, the Engelmann Spruce and a Baker’s Blue Spruce.  Of the three deciduous trees, the Swedish whitebeam is the most southerly and smallest. It is also the only one with a visible tag.

 

Greek gods, chocolate, and political campaigns: the Ohio Buckeye

Lumber from the tree was crafted into prosthetic limbs.

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Ohio Buckeye

When you look at the Ohio Buckeye (Aesculus glabra), it isn’t surprising that it is in the same family as the horse chestnut tree. Along with the maples and soapberries, buckeyes are members of the order Sapindales. The genus of the tree, Aesculus, is derived from the name of the Greek god of medicine.

Not surprisingly, the Ohio Buckeye is the state tree of Ohio (designated in 1953) and the symbol of Ohio State University.  Despite its name, it is also native to many of the eastern states and Texas. The current champion tree can be found in Kentucky. It may be one of the few trees associated with a political campaign, that of William Henry Harrison in 1840. Buckeyes were also one of twenty-one species under contention to be the National Tree but lost to the oaks.

The “nuts” of the buckeye are poisonous when eaten raw but are edible once the tannins are leeched out or the nuts are roasted.  When boiling the nuts, the resultant tannins can be used to tan leather.

powder made of the buckeyes was also used by Native Americans to stun fish in ponds. If the above makes the idea of eating the nuts sound less than pleasant, there are also medicinal uses, such as using the powder in a salve for rashes and sores. The buckeye may have also been used for cerebral spinal treatments. A tea made from the bark may also help varicose veins and hemorrhoids. Lumber from the tree was put to another unusual medical use as it was crafted into prosthetic limbs!

Even though the fruit of the tree may not be something you want to eat, there is a candy called buckeyes. Basically they are a peanut butter ball dipped in chocolate.

To locate A86 Ohio Buckeye (Aesculus glabraon the City Park Tree Tour, park along City Park Drive near the pool The Buckeye is in a line of trees between the two playgrounds. It is the largest of the trees and two in from the street.

Do Persimmon Trees Have Seeds that Predict the Coming Winter?

Persimmon seeds may have been used as buttons in the Civil War.

 

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The bark of the persimmon tree looks as if it was made of building blocks.

The Ebony family (Ebenacea) consists of two genera, Euclea and Diospyros. The family contains between 400 and 500 species worldwide. The former genus contains ebony trees while Diospyros is made up of persimmons. Only two species of permisson are native to North American, the Texas persimmon (Diospyros texana) and the common persimmon (Diospyros virginiana.)

The common persimmon is found in about 3/5 of the lower 48. According to USDA publications, it grows in humid areas including the Mississippi River Valley, Long Island, and South Atlantic and Gulf states. For commercial development this same source recommends planting in areas that receive 48″ of precipitation.

This is a flowering tree. The flowers of the male and female are distinctive, with white-green male flowers in clusters. Female flowers are singular and more yellowy. The sex lives of these trees may be very involved as normally individual trees are either male or female. Occasionally male flowers appear on female trees and sometimes the flowers can self-pollinate.

Although occasionally referred to as white ebony, the uses of persimmon lumber are limited at least in part because of the small size of the tree. At one time golf club heads were made of this wood; according to Woodworking Network this is now more of a novelty. Due to its strength, persimmon wood has also been used for textile shuttles. Other uses include drumsticks. The wood can be turned and shaped with very sharp instruments.

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Persimmon leaves

The genus name Diospyros means fruit of the gods. Persimmons produce an edible fruit that is astringent when not fully ripe but becomes sweet after a frost (Sibley Guide to Trees, 2009.) A writeup from the University of Vermont reports the fruit increases antioxidant activity, is an anti-inflammatory, and helps prevent atherosclerosis. It is also reported to be high in vitamin C and calcium. Often the fruit, which is technically a berry, is dried, made into puddings, pies, jellies, cookies and even used to brew beer or make wine. This website has a recipe for beer from wild persimmons. The Old Farmers Almanac includes a recipe for persimmon bread as well.

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Leaves are oval and glossy,

Parts other than the fruit and lumber also have uses. The bark has been used in various forms to treat thrush, hemorrhaging, diphtheria, and even gonorrhea. The leaves may be made into a tea with purported health benefits. A newspaper article on the history of persimmons in the south mentions the seeds were used as buttons during the Civil War, while a second source says during that same war the seeds were ground up and used as a coffee substitute.

An unusual bit of folklore related to persimmon seeds is they may be able to predict weather! Again, the Farmers Almanac gives directions on how to use a split open seed to predict the coming winter.

The tagged Diospyros virginiana in City Park is a little more difficult to locate than other trees. To find it go to the western edge of the ball diamonds. It is near the southern tip of the northern field and is just outside the park boundaries in the golf course. Its unusual bark makes it easy to recognize. The National Champion Common Persimmon in Suffolk City, Va has a much larger circumference at 152 inches!

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As can be seen in this photo, it is one of the smaller trees in this area

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Catalpa—the Fish Bait Tree

Some consider the long seed pods and large leaves of this tree to be messy

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Flower from a Northern Catalpa

The genus Catalpa contains ten or eleven (North American Trees, 5th Edition) different species of trees. The Chinese variety, Catalpa ovata, which is on the City Park tree tour, is a native of China but has been introduced in the eastern part of North America.

Two species are native to this continent, Catalpa Speciosa and the southern version, Catalpa bignonioides Walt. Even though neither of the other species is tagged in the park, I am going to discuss them because catalpas are one of my favorites. The trees look very similar with their large leaves and long bean-like seed pods. Each also has clusters of flowers, with the native trees blooming earlier with larger blossoms than the Chinese variety.

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Developing leaf of the catalpa.

The Northern Catalpa (C. speciosa) is native to all but eight western states and Florida and has been introduced into Ontario. The Northern Catalpa is the largest of the three trees, normally growing to 60′. The National Champion tree in Indiana is 78′ and  with a 81′ crown spread. C. bignonioides, the southern catalpa, has a range which overlaps that of the northern. It can be found in most of the states where the larger tree doesn’t grow as well as in North Dakota. Although the Southern catalpa is normally only 30-40′ in height (The Tree Book, Dirr and Warren, 2019) the champion tree listed in 2017 is not much smaller than its northern counterpart (75′ x 82′).

The moniker fish-bait tree technically applies to the southern variety of this tree, but the catalpa doesn’t want for other names. They include the cigar-tree, Catawba, Indian-bean tree, caterpillar tree, and Western Catalpa, with the Northern and Southern species sometimes sharing the same alternate name.

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The developing leaves of the Chinese Catalpa with a few of the seed pods from last year

The wood of the northern tree has been used as railroad ties, trim carpentry, telephone poles, fences, and furniture. The southern catalpa wood has been used for similar purposes, but its most interesting use is in plantations where it is grown to attract the the catalpa sphinx moth, which is used for fish bait! (The Tree Book, Dirr and Warren, 2019).

Bark from C. Bignonioides has been used to treat malaria. Other parts of the plant have been used for medical reasons, including the roots, although the current writeup from the USDA includes a warning in red that the roots of this plant are poisonous!  Plants for the Future rates only the Chinese Catalpa as having possible edibility. The USDA does warn that the native trees may be invasive and weedy. Many people complain that the seed pods are messy and many don’t like the large leaves. My feeling is that the larger leaves make them easier to pick up! Even the New York Times took up the case of the catalpa with the story of its spread in the 19th century.

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Bark of the Chinese catalpa

The Chinese Catalpa is smaller than the native trees. An  additional use of its wood is in the making of a traditional Chinese instrument, the Qin.

The Chinese catalpa C 175 in the City Park Arboretum is along Sheldon Drive, just south of the Indian Magic Crabapple on the eastern side of the road, catty corner from the latrine on the west side of the road. The catalpa trees in town seem to leaf out and flower late in the season, so much so that if you own one, you start to worry it has died, yet the Chinese catalpa is even later. It looks quite scraggly even this late in June this year.

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The Chinese catalpa in mid June

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Spring Check Up on the Blog

Some of the trees of City Park in early spring.

Spring appears to be late in the park this year. The redbuds have flowers but are far from spectacular. The crabapples have transitioned to leaves. The few left with blooms look drab in the overcast weather. Trees which were only budding a few weeks ago are fully leafed out. Some are yet to flower and a few have not yet filled out.

At this point I’ve highlighted 98 of the 200+ trees on the park tour. Below are a few spring photos of trees I covered earlier, plus a few interesting ones I’ve yet to do.

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Gingko leaves emerging.

The column about this tree can be found here: https://whattreewhere.com/2017/10/30/gingko-tree-most-unique-tree-in-the-world

Although the weeping mulberry is not yet fully leafed out, it does now look more like it did when I wrote about it: https://whattreewhere.com/2017/10/24/the-r2d2-prototype-weeping-mulberry-trees/. On another note, I didn’t see any fruit from this tree in the fall.

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Bud on the weeping mulberry

The buds of the horse chestnuts are extremely sticky! I did mention this in my post last year but apparently I forgot and got my hands very sappy. My report on this tree was just about this time last year. Although it does have cones of flowers on it now, it does not appear to be very showy. https://whattreewhere.com/2018/05/27/the-tree-the-british-play-with-horsechestnut/

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Sticky horse chestnut bud

The write up on hawthorn trees can be located here: https://whattreewhere.com/2018/10/15/hawthorn-trees-supernatural-powers-and-an-unassuming-champion. Here are two of them this spring. Some may still be blooming.

Usually it seems as if the Siberian Larch is one of the first trees in the park to gain its new leaves, but this year it took forever. These needles, or leaves, are very soft. Apparently I have only written about our championship European larch (https://whattreewhere.com/tag/larch-in-mythology/) but the new needles on it are much too high to touch.

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The newly emerged leaves, or needles on the Siberian larch.

Trees yet to be featured in this blog also made their spring appearance. Below are three early appearances of various oaks.

 

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Prestige linden buds against the blue sky
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European Beech bud

Ussurian Pear: the Most Cold Hardy of Pear Trees

This pear is hardy to USDA Zone 3!

Like all pears, cherries, apples, and hawthorns, the Ussurian Pear is a member of the Rosaceae or rose family.

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The flowers of the Ussurian pear tree. These were one of the first trees to bloom in the park

The tree, also known as the Harbin pear or Chinese pear, is native to China, Japan, Korea, and the Ussuri river area, which forms a border between Russia and Manchuria. It is the most cold-hardy of the thirty or so pear species and will grow in USDA zone 3.

The seeds for the tree were brought to the United States in 1926 by a professor from South Dakota who gathered them near Harbin China. This date is disputed by the Morton Arboretum, which states their tree was planted in 1922. The pome of this species is said to be small, hard and not particularly delicious although it might improve in flavor after a frost. The amount of sugar the fruit contains varies widely between varieties.

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Early buds on the Ussurian pear tree

Some sources suggest it might be used for jellies. Although this website lumps the Harbin pear in with other Asian pears, it says the fruit may also have a tenderizing agent, making it good for marinades. In a chat group, another respondent suggested it might be worth trying to make a perry from the fruit.

In any case, the trees take up to eight years to produce fruit (pomes) and may live up to 300 years. The fruit is eaten by small mammals and birds. In the landscape the trees are used as a windbreak or as a specimen tree. Like most pears, Ussurian pears contain a compound that has antibacterial properties and may also serve as a flea and tick deterrent. 

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Ussurian pear tree still sporting snow bumpers

The Ussurian pear (Pyrus ussuriensis) in City park was planted in 1993 and had a trunk diameter of 3.5″. To find this tree: if you start at the intersection of Sheldon Drive and City Park and walk from the South East corner in a straight line south and east from the point of the intersection, you would find the tree between the the two playing fields. 

 

 

 

Hawthorn Trees: Supernatural Powers and an Unassuming Champion.

Draco Malfoy’s wand was made of hawthorn

On September 4, 2018, one of the trees in Fort Collin’s City Park was named a NATIONAL champion, the 9th such title Colorado can claim. Okay, okay, don’t get too excited. Yes, it is nice to have a national champion, but when you find this specimen, you might be a tad disappointed as it is far from gigantic. In fact, before I knew it was a national champion, I kind of laughed at it. Its fruit is minuscule. The leaves late in the summer looked ravished, and overall, it wasn’t impressive, although it was larger and bushier than one of the other hawthorns in the park.

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The new NATIONAL champion Cerro Hawthorn

Crataegus erythopoda, or the Cerro hawthorn, is native to the Rocky Mountain states along with other trees and shrubs in this genus. Crataegus is a member of the rose family. According to Sibley in The Sibley Guide to Trees, in the early 1900s botanists had named over a thousand different species of hawthorns. This number is now closer to a more manageable one hundred. Apparently types of hawthorn grow throughout North America. Like so many other trees, they are known by many names including thornapple, may-tree in Europe, white thorn, mayflower and maybush.

The trees of this genus have thorns, flowers in the spring, and pomes resembling crabapples in the fall. In the UK the fruit are called haws. These berry-like fruits vary in size and color for

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Thorn on the Cerros hawthorn

each of the many species in this genus. Various species of hawthorn are ubiquitous throughout North America.

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The fruit of the Cerros hawthorn

Another hawthorn native to most of North America, including Colorado, is the Fleshy hawthorn (Crataegus succulenta.) Although the general consensus seems to be 

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The Fleshy hawthorn, another native tree

the fruit of the hawthorn is not delectable, at least one website says the haws of this species are sweet, juicy, and good for making jellies. It also mentions the fruit is slightly larger than that of other species, and these characteristics might be where it gets its Latin name. Eat the Weeds indicates that hawthorn seeds inside the pomes are poisonous and should not be eaten. At the same time, the website includes recipes for

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The fruit of the fleshy hawthorn

Schnapps, jellies, including one of Euell Gibbons recipes, and hawthorn catsup. If you happen to own a prolific tree, you do have to be careful of the thorns if picking the haws!

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Thorn on the fleshy hawthorn.

According to Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West (Michael Moore, 2003) the hawthorn has been used as a heart tonic. Other authors say it has been used for cardiovascular health for over 500 years. Another source goes so far as to say the hawthorn provides “the world’s best heart tonic,” mentions studies conducted in Europe and references both articles and books. The flowers, which are bitter, the fruit, and the leaves all may be used, although the berries may begin to ferment after frost. As is the case with most herbal medications, this one comes with warnings of potential side effects.

Hawthorn trees have played a part in mythology, and are often considered unlucky. Draco Malfoy’s wand is made of hawthorn wood in the Harry Potter series. Up until the 19th century, the tree was considered to have supernatural powers.  A particular tree in England, the Glastonbury Holy Thorn Tree has links to the beginning of Christianity and actually bloomed twice a year, including near the winter solstice. This most famous of  hawthorn trees was vandalized in 2010, but in 2011 there was a report that it may be “back from the dead.

Hawthorn trees easily and freely hybridize, which might be why the number of separate species varies. The other three identified hawthorns in City Park appear to be variant trees. The Lavelle hawthorn  (Crataegus X Lavallei)  E65 is a relatively spineless variety with small green fruits into the fall.

This tree is located near the shed in the center of the current miniature train tracks at the corner of City Park and Bryan Drive.

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Lavelle hawthorn near the miniature railroad tunnel shed

C169, the Snowbird Hawthorn (Crataegus x mordenensis SnowBird) is located near the corner of Mulberry and Sheldon Drive, along Mulberry Street. This particular tree had very few haws. Thorns protrude from the small branches.

The last of the tagged hawthorns is near the Snowbird, about a third of the way between Mulberry and City Park along Sheldon Drive. C174 is the Winter King Hawthorn (Crataegus viridis Winter King.) 

Both the fleshy hawthorn (Crataegus succulenta) E40 and E36 Cerros hawthorn are on the west end of the ballfields. You can find the ballfields by walking or driving to the very end of Oak Street. E36 is near the NW tip of the south ball field while E40 is near the NW tip of the north field.

E36 is mis-identified on at least some copies of the tree guide as a Black Hawthorn, but its tag clearly says Crataegus erythopoda or the Cerro hawthorn.

 

Bees at the Bee-Bee Tree

Hundreds of saplings may grow under a female tree.

The Korean Evodia is another tree with a checkered history in North America. The Latin name for this tree included on the City Park Tree Guide is given as Evodia danielli but it appears Tetradium danielli  is also used. Other names include Bee tree, Bee-bee tree or bebe tree. Other sources include the name Honey tree and One Hundred Thousand Flower tree. The current USDA map shows it naturalized in Pennsylvania and Ohio, yet many other states are reporting it as having escaped.

Although Pennsylvania has this species on its watch list for invasive potential, at this point it is not known how it might damage the environment. A four-acre patch of escaped trees has been reported in Maryland. A short article published in 2017 gives more information about the nature of this tree and its invasive nature, stating that hundreds of saplings grow under a female tree and it has been seen outcompeting other invasive species such as the tree of heaven and Japanese stilt grass.

First brought to the United States in the early nineteen hundreds, this specimen is native to the Koreas, northwest China and other parts of Asia. Why is it given its various monikers?

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A cluster of buds for the Korean evodia or One Hundred Thousand Flower tree.

Although the many small blooms, in clusters that resemble poorly formed cauliflower heads, are rather high up and hard to see, bees swarm these late bloomers. It is the second week in September here in Colorado and the flowers are still blooming. Purportedly female flowers will turn to stunning red seed pods.

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Bees on the flowers of the Korean Evodia

This propensity for late blooming makes the tree popular with both bees and possibly beekeepers. Although many sites mention this as a nectar source, the references I found date to the 1970s with few current citations. One website suggests a substance made from the seeds is used as both a cooking and hair oil!

In the 1990s the US Forest Service lamented this tree was not used more often for ornamental purposes and suggested it would be a good street tree. Similar to the Amur cork tree, parts of Korean evodia have been used in Chinese medicine for 2000 years. It has been used to treat arthritis, headaches, gastric upset, and other ailments. Both WebMD and RxList suggest there is not enough evidence to show if any parts of the plant are effective.WebMD includes a number of drugs with which evodia may interact and cautions pregnant and breastfeeding women from using it. Surgical patients should also use caution as it might interfere with blood clotting.

C185 Korean Evodia (Evodia danielii) is either no longer tagged or the tag is nearly impossible to find when the tree is blooming. At the right time of year, though, it is fairly easy to identify by the many bees buzzing around its flowers and its somewhat unusual  shape. If you found the Amur Cork, walk slightly south and west from there. Although not perfectly aligned with Olive Street, you can also start from where Olive Street tees into Jackson and walk west and slightly south across the park to find it. It is near a large evergreen tree.

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Korean Evodia in August