The Trouble with Trees in General and Cedars in Particular

Trees in genus Cedras are often called the true cedars.

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Through the branches of an Eastern Red Cedar

So far I’ve covered over forty trees and I’m up to the cedars. I’d counted five tagged on the self-guided tour, but it turns out that I didn’t look closely enough as one of those trees with the common name of CEDAR is actually a juniper. The other four belong to three different genus/families even though they all share the common name of cedar. Misnaming trees from the Latin to the vernacular makes tree identification difficult! Another problem is the multiple spellings for the same tree. Red Cedar or Redcedar?

Six of the types of conifers discussed so far have been in order Pinales, family Pinaceae. Arborvitae, the Giant Sequoia, and Junipers belong to order Cupressales, family Cupressaceae. All of these belong to the subclass Pinidae, commonly referred to as Conifers.  (From The Gymnosperm Database.)

The Eastern Red Cedar (Juniperus virginiana) was used in ways similar to the other junipers discussed previously.  According to the USDA map, this is one of the most widely distributed native conifers on the continent as the usual eastern block extends to Colorado and also includes Oregon. Interestingly, Eastern red cedar is not included in Flora of Colorado (Ackerfield, 2015). Red cedar is said to have very durable wood and was used to make lances, bows, and multipurpose mats.

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Lumber from Redcedar used as flooring
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Bark of the Eastern red cedar

The wood has been valued for its rot-resistant properties. Today the wood is often used for its aromatic properties. It is used to line closest and cedar chests and was once used to make pencils. Occasionally in the south it is still used as a Christmas tree.

The US champion Eastern Redcedar is a tree in Georgia that has overall points of 310, but is only 57 feet tall. The champion Eastern Redcedar in Colorado is in Denver but doesn’t even score half the points of the national champion. It is, though, taller at a height of sixty feet. Sources differ on the age of these trees, with some saying 900 years and others 500.

To find A77 Eastern Red Cedar (Juniperus virginiana), drive to the pottery studio, which is on the corner of Oak and S. Bryan. You can see the trees in front of the building. 

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Eastern Red Cedars in front of the Pottery Studio

 

The Himalayan Cedar (Cedras deodara Karl Fuchs) belongs to the genus Cedras. The trees in this group are often referred to as true cedars. Cedras Deodara is native to India and Pakistan. The USDA map indicates they have only been introduced in three southern states.*

Even though this is a true cedar, compared to the other trees listed as cedars, it is somewhat deceiving as the leaves (needles) might look to the casual observer as belonging to a spruce or pine.

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Himalayan Cedar needles

The bark looks different from that of the Eastern Red Cedar.

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Bark of the Himalayan Cedar

According to the Arbor Day Foundation, the name of the tree in Sanskrit means “Timber of the Gods,” and it was introduced into Europe and America in the early 1800s. The site also mentions that an oil the tree produces has insect repelling qualities. Virginia Tech Dendrology states the tree is planted as an ornamental in zones 7 and 8. It mentions  it is often mistaken for European Larch and Atlas Cedar. The cultivar Karl Fuchs was developed in Germany in the 1970s.

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The Himalayan Cedar (Cedras deodara Karl Fuchs)

Tree  C143 can be found along Jackson Avenue, about midway between W. Olive and W. Magnolia Street. As can be seen from the photo above, it is a little way into the park and not directly along the street.

Next post: Alaskan and Incense Cedar

 

*So far I have not been able to pin down the meaning of “introduced” vs “native” as there appear to be trees that are planted in areas other than where they are native or have been introduced. (Possibly introduced means once the seeds have been planted, the trees are able to spread without the help of humans? This is also often referred to as an invasive species, but not all introduced species are problems as they do not take over or compete with native species. Other non-native trees are referred to as exotics and possibly they are single specimens which thrive but have no way to reproduce and spread? This is a hypothesis on my part and in no way verified.

Mighty Little Giant Sequoia Tree

The leaves of this tree are sharp enough they hurt!

No big surprise, but Giant Sequoias are only native to California. This species of the Cupressaceae family is the only member of its genus Sequoiadendron. The trees are also called big tree and Sierra Redwood. They are so large, they often have monikers. The largest standing today is the General Sherman which has a volume of 52,500 cubic feet and is over 274 feet tall. Due to their height and trunk volume, these trees are often referred to as the largest living things on earth. General Sherman is not the tallest known Giant Sequoia. The tallest is said to be over 300 feet and grows in a known grove but the exact tree is not specified. Sequoias may also be some of the most long-lived, as the oldest one by stump count in 1870 was 3266 years.

As this tree grows fast even in old age, it is possible the General Sherman will get both taller and wider! Although Giant Sequoias would provide a lot of wood per tree, most of them are protected. Once used for fenceposts, their wood is rot resistant but also brittle, making it less than ideal for building. The local Native Americans, members of the Tule River Tribe, did use the wood for fenceposts and crafts, but instead of felling the trees, they utilized downed wood. After the white man discovered the Sequoia, many were lumbered, eventually leading the preserved groves to be added to the National Park System. 

North American Trees (Preston and Braham, 2002) mention that a “dark red pigment in ink” can be obtained from the cones. One advantage of having a smaller tree in the park is you can feel the leaves, which I think are the prickliest of the conifers. They hurt!

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Pointed leaves of the sequoia

This short video discusses the lifecycle of the sequoias.  At one time the conditions for these trees to grow may have existed as far east as Colorado. Changes to the climate affecting California may not bode well for the Sequoias as well as other other trees. In 2017 the Pioneer Cabin Tree, which you could drive through, fell during a severe rainstorm.

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The young Giant Sequoia

Sequoias have been planted elsewhere in the world, including Denmark and France. In the mid 1800s, Giant Sequoias were a popular addition to English castle gardens, where conditions appear to be ideal. Some of the largest specimens in Europe can be found in Great Britain. In the relatively few tree-years since then, some specimens have acquired height of around half the tallest in the US. Another group of trees which were planted in Denmark to help with reforestation, where killed in the winter of 1942. Today many visitors from around the world take home seeds to grow the trees.

 

To find B116 Giant Sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum) go to the triangle formed at Oak, Jackson, and City Park. In this area is a stone bench. If you were to sit on the bench facing south you would be looking toward the Giant Sequoia, which is parallel to the lamp post. 

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Close up of the young Giant Sequoia’s bark.